What Is It?
Trilaurin, Triarachidin, Tribehenin, Tricaprin, Tricaprylin, Trierucin, Triheptanoin, Triheptylundecanoin, Triisononanoin, Triisopalmitin, Triisostearin, Trilinolein, Trilinolenin, Trimyristin, Trioctanoin, Triolein, Tripalmitin, Tripalmitolein, Triricinolein, Tristearin, Triundecanoin, Glyceryl Triacetyl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Triacetyl Ricinoleate and Glyceryl Stearate Diacetate are referred to as Glyceryl Triesters. These ingredients are used in makeup products, creams and lotions, deodorants, suntan and sunscreen products, hair conditioners, and skin care and skin cleansing products.
Why Is It Used?
The following functions have been reported for the glyceryl triester ingredients. Ingredients that enhance the appearance and feel of hair, by increasing hair body, suppleness, or sheen, or by improving the texture of hair that has been damaged physically or by chemical treatment. – Triethylhexanoin, Triundecanoin Skin conditioning agent – emolient – Glyceryl Triacetyl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Triacetyl Ricinoleate Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Glyceryl Stearate Diacetate, Triarachidin, Tribehenin, Tricaprin, Tricaprylin, Trierucin, Triethylhexanoin, Triheptanoin, Triheptylundecanoin, Triisononanoin, Triisopalmitin, Triisostearin, Trilaurin, Trilinolein, Trilinolenin, Trimyristin, Triolein, Tripalmitin, Tripalmitolein, Triricinolein, Tristearin, Triundecanoin Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Glyceryl Stearate Diacetate, Triarachidin, Trierucin, Triheptanoin, Triheptylundecanoin, Triisononanoin, Triisopalmitin, Triisostearin, Trilaurin, Trilinolein, Trilinolenin, Trimyristin, Triolein, Tripalmitin, Tripalmitolein, Triricinolein, Tristearin
The glyceryl triesters are prepared from glycerin and the corresponding A natural organic compound that consists of a carboxyl group (oxygen, carbon and hydrogen) attached to a chain of carbon atoms with their associated hydrogen atoms. The chain of carbon atoms may be connected with single bonds, making a ‘saturated’ fat; or it may contain some double bonds, making an ‘unsaturated’ fat. The number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the chain is what determines the qualities of that particular fatty acid. Animal and vegetable fats are made up of various combinations of fatty acids (in sets of three) connected to a glycerol molecule, making them triglycerides.. For example, Trilaurin is produced from glycerin and lauric acid; Tristearin is produced from glycerin and stearic acid. Many glyceryl triesters, or triglycerides, can be found in animal and vegetable fats and oils such as tallow, palm-nut and coconut oils.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reviewed the safety of Tristearin and approved its use as a multipurpose additive for direct addition to food. The FDA has also approved the following ingredients for use as indirect food additives: Trilaurin, Trimyristin, Triolein, Tripalmitin, Tristearin and Glyceryl Triacetyl Hydroxystearate. The safety of the glyceryl triesters has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel.
The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Trilaurin, Triarachidin, Tribehenin, Tricaprin, Tricaprylin, Trierucin, Triheptanoin, Triheptylundecanoin, Triisononanoin, Triisopalmitin, Triisostearin, Trilinolein, Trilinolenin, Trimyristin, Trioctanoin, Triolein, Tripalmitin, Tripalmitolein, Triricinolein, Tristearin, Triundecanoin, Glyceryl Triacetyl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Triacetyl Ricinoleate and Glyceryl Stearate Diacetate were safe as used in cosmetics and personal care products.
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel noted that metabolism data indicated that glyceryl triesters followed the same metabolic pathways as fats in food. They were split into monoglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycerol. All of which were absorbed into the intestinal mucosa and metabolized further. Therefore, oral exposure to these compounds was not a concern.
Triolein was not absorbed through the skin (the oil remained on the application site) or only slight absorption was seen. Dermal application was not associated with significant irritation. Ocular exposures were, at most, mildly irritating to eyes. No evidence of sensitization or photosensitization were seen. These compounds were not genotoxic in a number of Experiments performed in a test tube or another artificial, controlled environment, rather than in a whole animal. and in vitro assay systems.
Tricaprylin, Trioctanoin, and Triolein have historically been used as vehicles in carcinogenicity testing of other chemicals. As part of an effort to evaluate vehicles used in carcinogenicity studies, the National Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical and physical agents on living organisms. Program (NTP) conducted a 2-year carcinogenicity study with Tricaprylin. The study concluded that Tricaprylin did not offer significant advantages over corn oil as a vehicle in carcinogenicity studies. Trilaurin inhibited the formation of neoplasms initiated by dimethybenzanthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. Clinical tests of Trilaurin at 36.3% in a product applied to the skin produced no irritation reactions.
Trilaurin, Tristearin and Tribehenin at 40%, 1.68% and 0.38%, respectively, in products were also negative in repeat insult patch tests. Tristearin at 0.32% in a product induced transient, mild to moderate, ocular irritation after instillation into the eyes of human subjects.
Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for Glyceryl Tristearate (Tristearin) and certain Fatty Acids reacted with Glycerol
If they are derived from plants, the Glyceryl Triesters may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the Under the general provisions of the cosmetics regulation of the EU, ingredients appearing on the following function-specific annexes must comply with the listed restrictions and/or specifications: colorants (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex V), UV filters (Annex VI) and other ingredients with specific concentration limits and/or other restrictions (Annex III). Ingredients specifically prohibited from use in cosmetic products are listed in Annex II. Other ingredients listed in the EU cosmetic ingredient database (CosIng) may be used without restrictions.. Ingredients of animal origin must comply with European Union animal by-products regulations.
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_p…
More Scientific Information
These ingredients are triesters of glycerin and fatty acids and are relatively pure fats which differ only slightly from the fats and oils found in nature. In cosmetics and personal care products, they are primarily used as skin conditioning agents – occlusive and/or viscosity increasing agents – nonaqueous. Their performance is the result of their water insolubility and compatibility with various lipids.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration Food Ingredients and Packaging:
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/food/foodingredientspackaging/foodcontactsubstancesfc…
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.): http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/GenerallyRecognizedasSa…
Search the FDA Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/