What Is It?
Sodium Carbonate is a grayish-white crystalline powder. Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are white crystalline solids. Baking soda is another name for Sodium Bicarbonate. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in the formulation of bath, skin, and hair preparations.
Why Is It Used?
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are used to control the acid-base balance of cosmetic products. In cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Bicarbonate may also be used as an Ingredients used for abrading, smoothing or polishing, such as emery or pumice., a Ingredients that reduce or eliminate unpleasant odor and that protect against the formation of such odors on the skin., and an Ingredients that polish the teeth, reduce oral odor, or otherwise cleanse or deodorize the teeth and mouth..
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate, and Sodium Carbonate occur naturally in mineral deposits. Sodium Cabonate is also called soda ash, while Sodium Bicarbate is also called baking soda. In addition to their use in cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are also approved for use in food. Sodium Bicarbonate is also an approved active ingredient in OTC skin protectant and anticarries drug products.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reviewed the safety of Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate and determined that these ingredients were Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.) for direct addition to food. Sodium Bicarbonate has also been approved as a An ingredient that temporarily protects injured or exposed skin from harmful or annoying stimuli, and that may provide relief to such skin. In the United States, skin protectants are regulated as Over-The-Counter (OTC) drug ingredients. and an anticarries active ingredient in Over-the-Counter (OTC) drug products.
The safety of Sodium Carbonate and related ingredients has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate were safe as cosmetic ingredients. In 2005, as part of the scheduled re-evaluation of ingredients, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarboante and reaffirmed the above conclusion.
CIR Safety Review: Concentrated solutions of Sodium Carbonate, but not Sodium Bicarbonate, are skin and eye irritants due to their alkaline nature. Highly concentrated solutions of Sodium Carbonate have a pH of greater than 11.
The cosmetic use of Sodium Carbonate at high concentrations is mainly limited to products designed to be diluted before use and in products where A measurement of the acidity or basicity of a substance. pH is the negative logarithm (base 10) of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. Water has a concentration of hydrogen ions of 1.0 x 10-7, and thus has a pH of 7. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, a pH lower than 7 is considered acidic, and a pH higher than 7 is considered basic. is buffered to near neutrality. A review of the combined data from sensitization studies indicated that neither Sodium Carbonate nor Sodium Sesquicarbonate was a human sensitizer. The CIR Expert Panel did not consider testing for phototoxicity as warranted.
FDA Links to Code of Federal Regulations for Sodium Bicarbonate
- Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
- Skin Protectant Active Ingredients
- Anticaries Active Ingredients
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate may be used in cosmetics products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has not restricted the daily intake of Sodium Carbonate.
More Scientific Information
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are inorganic crystalline compounds that function as a pH adjusters in cosmetic formulations. pH Adjusters are chemicals (acids, bases, or buffering agents) which are used to control the pH of finished cosmetic products.
Find out more about the regulation of over-the-counter drugs by the Food and Drug Administration
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration