What Is It?
Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic salts. In cosmetics and personal care products, mixtures of persulfates such as Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate are used in hair bleaches and hair lighteners.
Why Is It Used?
Ammonium Persulfate, Potassium Persulfate and Sodium Persulfate help to decolorize or lighten hair by oxidizing the colors present in the hair shaft.
Ammonium Persulfate is also used in the baking industry as a bleaching agent for flour.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed the safety of Ammonium Persulfate and approved its use as a multipurpose food additive (< 0.075%) for direct addition to food, and as an Indirect food additives are additives that may become part of the food in trace amounts due to its packaging, storage or other handling. For example, minute amounts of packaging substances may find their way into foods during storage. in industrial A complex carbohydrate widely distributed among plants. It is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants. (< 0.3%, or < 0.6% in alkaline starch). The safety of Ammonium, Potassium and Sodium Persulfate has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate were safe as used as oxidizing agents in hair colorants and lighteners designed for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing from the hair and skin.
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel considered the sensitization potential of the Persulfates, including the potential of a hive reaction (urticaria) to these ingredients. The greatest concentration of Persulfates tested was 17.5% (under occlusive patches), yet data submitted to CIR reported that Persulfates are used in hair lighteners at concentrations of 60%. It was assumed that, in normal use (not occluded and rinsed off), a concentration greater than 17.5% would also be safe. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that manufacturers and formulators should be aware of the potential for urticarial reactions at concentrations of Persulfates greater than 17.5%.
Link to the Code of Federal Regulations for Ammonium Persulfate
Ammonium, Potassium and Sodium Persulfate may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.
Australia’s National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme has a Safety Info Sheet on Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate for hairdressers
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives determined that it is not possible to estimate an acceptable Ammonium Persulfate treatment level of The fine edible powder obtained by grinding and sifting cereal grain, usually mostly freed from the bran.
Nevertheless it is not considered necessary to discontinue the use of persulfates.
More Scientific Information
Ammonium, Potassium and Sodium Persulfate are oxidizing agents which accelerate the bleaching process of peroxide hair bleaches.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
- Food Ingredients and Packaging
- Food Contact Substances
- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.)
- Search the Code of Federal Regulations
- EU Cosmetics Inventory