What Is It?
PEG-2 Cocamine, PEG-3 Cocamine, PEG-5 Cocamine, PEG-10 Cocamine, PEG-15 Cocamine and PEG-20 Cocaminerange from viscous liquids to solids. In cosmetics and personal care products, the PEG Cocamine ingredients are used in the formulation of hair dyes, colors, and tints, hair conditioners, cleansing products, and other hair and skin care products.
Why Is It Used?
The PEG Cocamine ingredients help to form emulsions by reducing the surface tension of the substances to be emulsified. They also help other ingredients to dissolve in a Substances, usually liquids, that are used to dissolve other substances. in which they would not normally dissolve.
Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Cocamine ingredients are produced from the fatty acids in coconut oil. PEG Cocamine ingredients are manufactured by reacting coconut acid with a specific number of units of ethylene oxide, which corresponds to the average PEG chain length desired.
The safety of the PEG Cocamine ingredients has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that the available data were insufficient to assess the safety of PEG-2, -3, -5, -10, -15, and -20 Cocamine for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.
CIR Safety Review: Very little data were available on metabolism and toxicity of the PEG Cocamine ingredients, and no clinical data were found or provided. Toxicity data, including reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenesis data, and clinical testing data available from previous safety assessments on Polyethylene Glycol and Coconut Oil were summarized. The principal finding related to PEGs was based on clinical data in burn patients in which PEGs in an antibiotic ointment resulted in kidney toxicity.
No such effects were seen in studies on intact skin. Cosmetic manufacturers should adjust product formulations containing Polyethylene Glycol to minimize any untoward effects when products are used on damaged skin. Various PEG Cocamine ingredients were found to be mild to moderate skin irritants and were ocular irritants. PEG-15 Cocamine was negative in bacterial mutagenicity studies.
The limited data on PEGs Cocamine and the related data on other ingredients, however, were not sufficient to support the safety of PEG Cocamine ingredients for use in cosmetic formulations. Additional data requested by the CIR Expert Panel included genotoxicity and dermal sensitization data. Small amounts of 1,4-dioxane, a by-product of ethoxylation, may be found in the PEG Cocamine ingredients.
The potential presence of this material is well known and can be controlled through purification steps to remove it from the ingredients before blending into cosmetic formulations.
More information about what the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing to assure that cosmetics do not contain unsafe levels of 1,4-dioxane.
PEG Cocamine may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.
More Scientific Information
The PEG Cocamine ingredients are the polyethylene glycol ethers of the primary aliphatic amine derived from coconut oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients function as surfactants (emulsifying and solubilizing agents).