What Is It?
Lard is a soft, white oily substance obtained by heating the fat from pigs. Lard Glycerides are the mono-, di-, and triglycerides derived from Lard, whereas Lard Glyceride is the monoglyceride only. Hydrogenated Lard Glycerides, Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride, and Hydrogenated Lard are produced by adding hydrogen atoms to the described precursor. In cosmetics and personal care products, Lard and Lard-derived ingredients are used in the formulation of skin care products and makeup such as eyebrow pencils, eyeliner and lipstick.
Why Is It Used?
The following functions have been reported for Lard and the Lard-derived ingredients.
- Ingredients that help to keep an emulsion from separating into its oil and liquid components. – Lard Glyceride
- Skin conditioning agent – emollient – Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glycerides
- Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Lard, Hydrogenated Lard
- An ingredient that helps two substances that normally do not mix to become dissolved or dispersed in one another. Also called a surface active agent. – emulsifying agent – Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride
- Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Hydrogenated Lard, Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glycerides
Lard consists of 38-43% saturated fats and 56-62% unsaturated fats. Because of its relatively high saturated fat content, the use of Lard as a cooking fat or shortening has diminshed.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Lard on its list of substances considered Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.). It is permitted to be used in cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. The polyglycerol esters of Lard are also approved for use as multipurpose additives for direct addition to food. The safety of Lard and Lard-derived ingredients has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride, Hydrogenated Lard Glycerides, Lard, and Hydrogenated Lard were safe in cosmetics and personal care products.
CIR Safety Review: No information was available regarding the fate during processing of impurities such as pesticides or heavy metals that may be found in tissue from which Lard is derived. However, Lard itself is established as a GRAS substance. Studies reported adverse effects expected with the feeding of high fat diets, but other toxicity data were not available.
Lard was not mutagenic in one study. Cell proliferation assays showed more proliferation after Lard was fed compared to those fed plant-source fats, but another study showed no difference. Consistent with the FDA GRAS determination, it was concluded that these ingredients may be used safely in cosmetic formulations.
However, it was considered important to limit the presence of heavy metals and/or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and other Substances that destroy or repel pests, or that prevent or mitigate the effects of pests. In the United States, pesticides for use in consumer products, including cosmetics, must be registered and approved by the EPA. contamination. Accordingly, limits were established as follows: lead, not more than 0.1 ppm; arsenic, 3 ppm or less; mercury, 1 ppm or less; and total PCB/pesticide contamination, not more than 40 ppm, with not more than 10 ppm for any specific residue.
Link to the FDA Code of Federal Regulations for Lard
If the ingredients conform to European Union animal by-products legislation, Lard, referred to as Adeps Suillus, and Lard-derived ingredients may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the Under the general provisions of the cosmetics regulation of the EU, ingredients appearing on the following function-specific annexes must comply with the listed restrictions and/or specifications: colorants (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex V), UV filters (Annex VI) and other ingredients with specific concentration limits and/or other restrictions (Annex III). Ingredients specifically prohibited from use in cosmetic products are listed in Annex II. Other ingredients listed in the EU cosmetic ingredient database (CosIng) may be used without restrictions..
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation:
More Scientific Information
Lard is obtained by the rendering of fatty pig tissue. Lard Glycerides are the mono-, di-, and triglycerides derived from Lard, whereas Lard Glyceride is the monoglyceride only. Hydrogenated Lard Glycerides, Hydrogenated Lard Glyceride, and Hydrogenated Lard are produced by controlled hydrogenation of the described precursor. In cosmetics and personal care products, Lard and Lard-derived ingredients function as skin conditioning agents – emollients and occulsive. With the exception of Lard, these ingredients also function as viscosity increasing agents – nonaqueous.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/defaul…
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/