Hydrogenated Tallow Glyceride
What Is It?
Tallow is the fat derived from the fatty tissue of sheep or cattle. Tallow Glyceride is the monoglyceride dervied from Tallow, while Tallow Glycerides is a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides dervied from Tallow. Hydrogenated Tallow Glyceride and Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides are obtained by adding hydrogen to Tallow Glcyeride and Tallow Glycerides, respectively. Tallow and the Tallow Glyceride ingredients range from soft, cream-colored waxes to white solids. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in the formulation of eye makeup, lipsticks, makeup bases and foundations, shampoos, shaving soaps, moisturizers and skin care products.
Why Is It Used?
The following functions have been reported for these ingredients.
- Skin conditioning agent – emollient – Tallow Glycerides, Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides
- Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Tallow
- An ingredient that helps two substances that normally do not mix to become dissolved or dispersed in one another. Also called a surface active agent. – emulsifying agent – Tallow Glyceride, Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides
- Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides
Historically, Tallow, obtained from fatty tissues of beef or mutton, was often used as soap stock. Tallow contains the glycerides of oleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic and linoleic acids.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Tallow and Hydrogenated Tallow on its list of substances considered Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.) as substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. The polyglycerol esters of Tallow are also approved as multipurpose direct food additives. The safety of Tallow and the Tallow Glyceride ingredients has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Tallow, Tallow Glyceride, Tallow Glyerides, Hydrogenated Tallow Glyceride and Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use. In 2006, as part of the scheduled re-evaluation of ingredients, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on Tallow and the Tallow Glyceride ingredients and reaffirmed the above conclusion. During the re-review, the CIR Expert Panel considered concerns about bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). They noted that these ingredients were processed and purified sufficiently so that there was no free A naturally occurring complex organic substance present in relatively high amounts in meats, fish, eggs, cheese, legumes. Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus.. It was also noted that FDA regulations that establish source and processing controls help to assure that these ingredients present no risk of BSE.
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel noted that they previously reviewed the safety of the A natural organic compound that consists of a carboxyl group (oxygen, carbon and hydrogen) attached to a chain of carbon atoms with their associated hydrogen atoms. The chain of carbon atoms may be connected with single bonds, making a ‘saturated’ fat; or it may contain some double bonds, making an ‘unsaturated’ fat. The number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the chain is what determines the qualities of that particular fatty acid. Animal and vegetable fats are made up of various combinations of fatty acids (in sets of three) connected to a glycerol molecule, making them triglycerides. constituents of Tallow, and some of the corresponding fatty acid alcohols. These components have also been evaluated for safety by the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology and the FDA. In all cases, the ingredients were found safe in present practices of use. None of these constituents of Tallow was toxic through oral or dermal exposure, they were not ocular or dermal irritants, and they were neither dermal sensitizers nor photosensitizers. The same was true for other oils that contain varying concentrations of the constituents of Tallow. Based on the CIR safety evaluations of the individual constituents of Tallow and of cosmetic ingredients containing the constituents of Tallow, and on the approval of Tallow for use in foods and other consumer products, it was concluded that Tallow, Tallow Glyceride, Tallow Glycerides, Hydrogenated Tallow Glyceride and Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides were safe as cosmetic ingredients.
Link to the FDA Code of Federal Regulations for Tallow
The use of Tallow and Tallow derived ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in the United States is subject to sourcing limitation and record-keeping requirements described in the Code of Federal Regulations as described in several Federal Register publications.
Federal Register Publications:
July 14, 2004:
October 11, 2006:
More information about bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
When used in cosmetics and personal care products in Europe, Tallow and Tallow Glyceride ingredients must conform to European Union animal by-products legislation, and the Under the general provisions of the cosmetics regulation of the EU, ingredients appearing on the following function-specific annexes must comply with the listed restrictions and/or specifications: colorants (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex V), UV filters (Annex VI) and other ingredients with specific concentration limits and/or other restrictions (Annex III). Ingredients specifically prohibited from use in cosmetic products are listed in Annex II. Other ingredients listed in the EU cosmetic ingredient database (CosIng) may be used without restrictions..
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation:
More Scientific Information
The major constituents of Tallow are the glycerides of oleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic and linoleic acids. Tallow Glycerides is the mono-, di- and triglycerides derived from Tallow, whereas Tallow Glyceride is the monoglyceride only. Hydrogenated Tallow Glyceride and Hydrogenated Tallow Glycerides are produced by controlled hydrogenation of the described precursor.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/defaul…
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/