Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil
What Is It?
Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil (also called Cottonseed Oil) is the fixed oil expressed from the seeds of cotton. It is a pale yellow oil. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil is a soft, white material made from cottonseed oil. The fatty acids from Cottonseed Oil are called Cottonseed Acid. Monoglycerides made from Cottonseed Oil are called Cottonseed Glyceride. When hydrogenated, this material is called Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride. In cosmetics and personal care products, Cottonseed Oil and ingredients made from Cottonseed Oil may be used in the formulation of skin cleansing products, eye makeup, other makeup products, as well as skin and hair care products.
Why Is It Used?
When used in cosmetics and personal care products, the following functions have been reported for Cottonseed Oil and the ingredients made from Cottonseed Oil.
- Skin conditioning agent – emollient – Cottonseed Glyceride
- Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil
- Surfactants – cleansing agents – Cottonseed Acid
- Surfactants – emulsifying agents – Cottonseed Glyceride, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride
- Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil
Cottonseed Oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. It must be refined to remove gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin that protects the cotton plant from insect damage. In its natural unhydrogenated state, Cottonseed Oil, like all vegetable oils, has no cholesterol. It also contains no trans fatty acids. However, it does contain over 50% Omega-6 fatty acids and only trace amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil has been used in margarine, shortening and cooking oil.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permits polyglyceryl esters of fatty acids derived from Cotton Seed Oil to be added to food. Cottonseed Oil is also allowed to be used as a defoaming agent in paper and paperboard that comes into contact with food. The safety of Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceryide and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceride, and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride were safe as used in cosmetics and personal care products, provided that limits on gossypol, heavy metals, and Substances that destroy or repel pests, or that prevent or mitigate the effects of pests. In the United States, pesticides for use in consumer products, including cosmetics, must be registered and approved by the EPA. concentrations were not exceeded.
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel was of the opinion that of Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceryide and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride may be used safely in cosmetics and personal care products. Cottonseed Oil was nontoxic in acute oral toxicity studies. Cottonseed Oil used as vehicles in two injection expsoure studies produced negative results. An oral reproductive study reported no adverse effects on sexual maturity and reproductive performance of the parental generation; changes were noted in the offspring but reproductive capacity was not altered. Injection exposure reproductive studies of Cottonseed Oil reported no adverse effects.
Cottonseed Oil was not mutagenic. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil tested in formulation did not produce dermal or ocular irritation. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil in formulation was neither an irritant nor sensitizer in clinical studies. The CIR Expert Panel recognized the need to limit the presence of gossypol, heavy metals, and/or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or pesticide contamination.
Gossypol (a natural toxin) was limited to a concentration of less than 450 ppm based on the Code of Federal Regulations – limit on modified cottonseed products intended for human consumption. The values for lead (less than or equal to 0.1 ppm) were adopted from the CIR final reports for ingredients derived from lard and limitations for arsenic (less than or equal to 3 ppm) and mercury (less than or equal to 1 ppm) were adopted from the CIR final report for Acid Violet 43. The CIR Expert Panel limited the total PCB/pesticide content to not more than 3 ppm, with not more than 1 ppm for any specific residue. The CIR Expert Panel recognized that these limits were developed for uses other than cosmetics, but considers such limits would assure that any cosmetics and personal care products with these ingredients can be used safely.
FDA: Link to the Code of Federal Regulations for Cottonseed Oil
FDA: Link to the Code of Federal Regulations for modified cottonseed products
Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceryide and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the Under the general provisions of the cosmetics regulation of the EU, ingredients appearing on the following function-specific annexes must comply with the listed restrictions and/or specifications: colorants (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex V), UV filters (Annex VI) and other ingredients with specific concentration limits and/or other restrictions (Annex III). Ingredients specifically prohibited from use in cosmetic products are listed in Annex II. Other ingredients listed in the EU cosmetic ingredient database (CosIng) may be used without restrictions..
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation:
More Scientific Information
Cottonseed Oil is rich in palmitic acid (22-26%), oleic acid (15-20%), linoleic acid (49-58%) and 10% mixture of arachidic acid, behenic acid and lignoceric acid. It also contains about 1% sterculic acids and malvalic acids in the crude oil. The cyclopropene acids are undesirable components, but they are largely removed during refining, particularly deodorization, and also during hydrogenation. They are not considered to present any health hazard in cottonseed oil.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/defaul…
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/