What Is It?
Eugenol is a clear to pale yellow liquid that has a spicy clove-like aroma. Eugenol, a naturally occurring substance found in many plants, is used to make fragrances and flavors. In cosmetics and personal care products, Eugenol is used in the formulation of aftershave lotions, bath products, bubble baths, fragrances, hair care products, moisturizers, shampoos and skin care products.
Why Is It Used?
Eugenol functions as a Substances that impart an odor to a product. and as a Ingredients added to ethyl alcohol (grain alcohol) to make it unsuitable for drinking, usually by imparting an intensely bitter taste. In the United States, the use of denaturants are controlled by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau in the Department of Treasury..
Eugenol is a naturally occurring fragrance compound found in clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon and bay leaf. It can also be produced synthetically.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes clove and its derivatives, including Eugenol, on its list of substances affirmed as Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.) as direct food substances. The safety of Eugenol has been evaluated by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Expert Panel (REXPAN). Based on this evaluation, an International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Standard has been established. The IFRA Standard restricts the use of Eugenol in fragrances because of potential sensitization.
Link to the IFRA Standards: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/standards_1
The The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) defers review of individual fragrance ingredients to the IFRA program unless the ingredient has significant uses other than as a fragrance. In this case, the ingredient may be assessed by both the CIR Expert Panel and REXPAN.
Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for Eugenol: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr…
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established an Acceptable Daily Intake for Eugenol of up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight when used as a Ingredients that impart a flavor or a taste to a product..
Link to the JECFA safety evaluation of Eugenol: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jeceval/jec_841.htm
The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association Expert Panel has reviewed the safety of Eugenol and determined that it is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as a flavoring agent. In Europe, Eugenol is included on the list of “allergenic” substances. The European Cosmetics Regulation requires manufacturers of cosmetics and personal care products to indicate the presence of certain “allergenic” substances in the list of ingredients if they are present above certain levels in the product (see Annex III). The presence of Eugenol must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds: 0.001% in leave-on the skin products 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin.
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm
More information about the safety of fragrances.
More Scientific Information
Eugenol is also referred to as allylguaiacol. It is an aromatic liquid that functions as a fragrance ingredient and denaturant.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Link to the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials http://www.rifm.org/
Search the FDA Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/