What Is It?
Picramic Acid is a dark red crystalline material. Sodium Picramate is the sodium salt of Picramic Acid. Both Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate may be used as dyes in in permanent hair dyes and colors.
Why Is It Used?
Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate impart color to hair. The exact color obtained will depend on the other ingredients that are used in the preparation and the starting color of the hair.
Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate are used in permanent hair coloring systems where color is produced inside the hair A slender, threadlike structure that forms animal or plant tissue. This is accomplished through careful formulation of the product so that the ingredients interact in a highly controlled process.
The safety of Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate were safe as hair dye ingredients at reported use concentrations.
CIR Safety Review:
The CIR Expert Panel reviewed the safety of Picramic ACcid and Sodium Picramate as they are use in hair dye products. When included in a hair dye formulation, very little skin absorption of Picramic Acid was observed. Sodium Picramate was mutagenic in bacteria but not non -mutagenic in mouse cells Experiments performed in a test tube or another artificial, controlled environment, rather than in a whole animal.. An oxidative hair dye containing Picramic Acid applied weekly was non-carcinogenic. A hair dye containing Picramic Acid did not cause developmental effects when applied dermally . The CIR Expert Panel noted that Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate are sensitizers and some persons may be sensitized under intended conditions of use.
The CIR Expert Panel expects that following label instructions on hair dye products will identify persons with irritation and sensitization reactions and allow them to avoid significant exposure. On the basis of the available data, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Picramic Acid and Sodium Picramate were safe as hair dye ingredients at reported use concentrations.
More information about the safety of hair dyes.
Picarmic Acid and Sodium Picramate are not specifically listed in the Cosmetics Directive of the European Union.
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm
Sodium Picramate may be used in hair dyes marketed in Canada at concentrations less than or equal to 0.1%.
Link to the Canada Hot List http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/person/cosmet/info-ind-prof/_hot-list-cri…
More Scientific Information
Hair dyeing formulations belong to three categories – temporary, semi-permanent and permanent coloring of hair. The permanent hair dyeing formulations are often referred to as oxidative hair dyes which are generally marketed as two-component products.
One component contains the compounds (precursors) that become the colorants and the other component is a stabilized solution of hydrogen peroxide. The two components are mixed immediately prior to use.
The precursors and peroxide diffuse into the hair shaft, where color formation takes place after the ingredients combine to produce the coloring mixture. The precursors are oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide to form the Ingredients that impart color to cosmetic products. In the United States, the FDA regulates which colorants may be used in cosmetics. molecules.
These molecules are too large to escape from the hair structure. The hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative hair dye product also serves as bleaching agent for the natural pigment of the hair. The color that is formed depends on the precursors and direct dyes present in the dyeing solution, A measurement of the acidity or basicity of a substance. pH is the negative logarithm (base 10) of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. Water has a concentration of hydrogen ions of 1.0 x 10-7, and thus has a pH of 7. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, a pH lower than 7 is considered acidic, and a pH higher than 7 is considered basic. of the dyeing solution and the time of contact of the dyeing solution with the hair as well as the starting color of the hair being dyed. Picramic Acid is also called 2-amino-4,6-dinitrophenol. Sodium Picramate is the sodium salt of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrophenol.
The FDA’s factsheet on Hair Dye Products http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductandIngredientSafety/ProductInformati…
Search the FDA Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/