What Is It?
Limonene is a colorless liquid with a light, fresh, and sweet citrus odor used to make fragrances and flavors. It is naturally occurring substance found in many citrus fruits. In cosmetics and personal care products, Limonene is used in the formulation of aftershave lotions, bath products, bubble baths, cleansing products, eye shadows, hair products, lipsticks, mascara, moisturizers, perfumes and colognes, shampoos, skin care products and suntan products.
Why Is It Used?
Limonene functions as a Substances that impart an odor to a product. and as a Substances, usually liquids, that are used to dissolve other substances..
Limonene is a naturally occurring fragrance compound found in the rind of citrus fruits. It can also be produced synthetically.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Limonene on its list of substances considered Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.) as a flavoring substance. The safety of Limonene has been evaluated by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Expert Panel (REXPAN).
Based on this evaluation, an International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Standard has been establised. The IFRA Standard restricts the use of Limonene in fragrances because of potential sensitization.
Link to the IFRA Standards: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/standards_1
The The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) defers review of individual fragrance ingredients to the IFRA program unless the ingredient has significant uses other than as a fragrance. In this case, the ingredient may be assessed by both the CIR Expert Panel and REXPAN.
Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for Limonene: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr…
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has concluded that Limonene does not present a safety concern at current levels of intake when used as a Ingredients that impart a flavor or a taste to a product..
Link to the JECFA safety evaluation of d-Limonene: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jeceval/jec_1270.htm
The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association Expert Panel has reviewed the safety of Limonene and determined that it is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as a flavoring agent. In Europe, Limonene is included on the list of “allergenic” substances. The European Cosmetics Directive requires manufacturers of cosmetics and personal care products to indicate the presence of certain “allergenic” substances in the list of ingredients if they are present above certain levels in the product (see Annex III). The presence of Limonene must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds: 0.001% in leave-on the skin products 0.01% in products that are rinsed off the skin
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm
More information about the safety of fragrances.
More Scientific Information
Limonene, which is also called dipentene, is a terpene that contains one or more of the following stereoisomers: d-limonene, l-limonene, or (racemic) dl-limonene.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/