Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter
What Is It?
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Any of various fatty oils remaining nearly solid at room temperature., Hydrogenated Shea Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter The fraction of an oil that is not saponified in the refining recovery of the oil?s fatty acids., Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter The mixture of substances drawn out of a material by solution, heat, or another physical or chemical process., Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil and Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Nut Extract are derived from the sheatree, Butyrospermum parkii, also called Vitellaria paradoxa.
Shea Butter and the other ingredients made from the sheatree are used in many types of cosmetics and personal care products including bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, lotions and creams, suntan products, lipstick and hair care products.
Why Is It Used?
The following functions have been reported for the ingredients derived from the sheatree.
- Ingredients that enhance the appearance and feel of hair, by increasing hair body, suppleness, or sheen, or by improving the texture of hair that has been damaged physically or by chemical treatment. – Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables
- Skin conditioning agent – emollient – Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Nut Extract
- Skin conditioning agent – miscellaneous – Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables
- Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil, Hydrogenated Shea Butter
- Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Hydrogenated Shea Butter
The sheatree is native to Central Africa, where it is used as a source of vegetable oil. The oil from the fruit of the sheatree contains about 45-50% oleic acid, 30-41% stearic acid, 5-9% plamitic acid and 4-5% linoleic acid.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes sheanut oil on its list of direct food substances affirmed as Generally Recognized As Safe (“GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.). The safety of Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Hydrogenated Shea Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables and Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil has been assessed by the The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) was established in 1976 as an independent safety review program for cosmetic ingredients. The CIR Expert Panel consists of independent experts in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacolgy and veterinary medicine. The CIR includes participation by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America. (CIR) Expert Panel.
The CIR Expert Panel evaluated scientific data and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products Botanical and botanically derived ingredients used in the formulation of cosmetics are generally mild and safe. Prior to marketing the finished cosmetic product, the safety of each ingredient must be substantiated in accordance with 21 CFR 740.10.
Safety substantiation of cosmetic ingredients may include tests for ocular and skin irritation as well as allergenicity, phototoxicity, photoallergenicity and mutagenicity, depending on the application or intended use. There is a considerable body of information about the safety of botanical ingredients and a well-established history of use. These resources are consulted to ensure the safety of these materials as they are used in cosmetics.
CIR Safety Review:
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Hydrogenated Shea Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables and Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil were included in the CIR Expert Panel’s review of plant-derived fatty acids oils. Based on a history of safe use in food, the composition of the oils, and data indicating these ingredients were not dermal irritants or sensitizers, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that plant-derived A natural organic compound that consists of a carboxyl group (oxygen, carbon and hydrogen) attached to a chain of carbon atoms with their associated hydrogen atoms. The chain of carbon atoms may be connected with single bonds, making a ‘saturated’ fat; or it may contain some double bonds, making an ‘unsaturated’ fat. The number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the chain is what determines the qualities of that particular fatty acid. Animal and vegetable fats are made up of various combinations of fatty acids (in sets of three) connected to a glycerol molecule, making them triglycerides. oils including Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Hydrogenated Shea Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables and Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil were safe as used in cosmetic products.
FDA: Link to Code of Federal Regulations for sheanut Oil http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr…
Some people are allergic to tree nuts including nuts from the sheatree. Therefore, the FDA Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act requires that all food containing sheanuts be clearly labeled.
Information about the FDA Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidance…
In selecting plant-derived ingredients for preparation of cosmetic products, formulators rely on the extensive history of their preparation and use. Such materials have been used for a long time and, based upon this experience, extensive knowledge of their safety has been gained. In the situation of newly identified botanicals in the cosmetic industry, appropriate ocular and skin safety studies are conducted prior to release into general commerce. There are many different references that describe the isolation, use and safety of botanical preparations.
More information about botanical ingredients.
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Hydrogenated Shea Butter, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter Extract, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Oil and Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Nut Extract may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the Under the general provisions of the cosmetics regulation of the EU, ingredients appearing on the following function-specific annexes must comply with the listed restrictions and/or specifications: colorants (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex V), UV filters (Annex VI) and other ingredients with specific concentration limits and/or other restrictions (Annex III). Ingredients specifically prohibited from use in cosmetic products are listed in Annex II. Other ingredients listed in the EU cosmetic ingredient database (CosIng) may be used without restrictions..
Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm
More Scientific Information
In naming plants, botanists use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. For example, under this system the plant, the sheatree is known as Butyrospermum parkii (G. Don) Kotschy., where “(G. Don) Kotschy ” stands for the names of the people, who first described the type of plant specimen. This plant is also called Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.
Plants are also known by a common name that has been handed down through generations. For example, the sheatree is also called sheat butter tree, galam butter tree, bambuk butter tree, karite and nku.
These common names may vary from country to country. Therefore, Latin names, which are more likely to be recognized in many countries, are frequently used on the label of a product to identify an ingredient made from plants.
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration
Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm
Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm
Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm
Cross Reference for Common Names and Latin names for Botanical ingredient: http://www.personalcarecouncil.org/botanicals-cross-reference-latin-bino…
Find out more about the history of using plants to obtain beneficial materials:
- Duke University: Brief History of Beauty and Hygiene Products http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/adaccess/cosmetics-history.html
- National Library of Medicine: Beauty and the body: the origins of cosmetics http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&lis…
- University of Maryland “Herbs by Name” http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsLookups/Herbs.html
Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm
EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/