Disperse Violet 1

What Is It?

Disperse Violet 1 is an anthraquinone color used in the formulation of semi-permanent and permanent hair coloring formulations.

Why Is It Used?

Disperse Violet 1 imparts color to hair. The exact color obtained will depend on the other ingredients that are used in the preparation and the starting color of the hair.

Scientific Facts

Disperse dyes get their names from the fact that they are used in dye baths as colloidal (particle) dispersions. Disperse Violet 1 occurs as either dark violet crystals or as a black powder. When used in semi-permanent hair coloring systems, color is deposited or adheres to the hair shaft. In permanent hair coloring systems, color is produced inside the hair fiber.

Safety Information

The safety of Disperse Violet 1 has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Disperse Violet 1 was safe as a hair dye ingredient. In 2007, as part of the scheduled re-evaluation of ingredients, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on Disperse Violet 1 and reaffirmed the above conclusion.

CIR Safety Review: In acute oral toxicity tests, Disperse Violet 1 was practically nontoxic. In a subchronic study, no adverse clinical or untoward pathological changes were found. Disperse Violet 1 was practically nonirritating in ocular studies at a concentration of 5.0%. A formulation containing 5% Disperse Violet 1 was nonirritating to the skin. In assays in bactirea, using doses of Disperse Violet 1 that ranged from 10 to 1000 microg/plate, Disperse Violet 1 was not mutagenic. In one test in bacteria, at doses ranging from 100 to 2000 microg/plate, some mutagenic activity of Disperse Violet 1 was seen both without and with metabolic activation. In a definitive long-term test, a hair dye formulation containing 0.033% Disperse Violet 1, dermally applied, was not carcinogenic.

More information about the safety of hair dyes.

Disperse Violet 1 is not specifically listed in the Cosmetics Directive of the European Union. Link to the EU Cosmetics Directive: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/sectors/cosmetics/documents/directive/inde…

More Scientific Information

Hair dyeing formulations belong to three categories – temporary, semi-permanent and permanent coloring of hair. The permanent hair dyeing formulations are often referred to as oxidative hair dyes which are generally marketed as two-component products. One component contains the compounds (precursors) that become the colorants and the other component is a stabilized solution of hydrogen peroxide. The two components are mixed immediately prior to use. The precursors and peroxide diffuse into the hair shaft, where color formation takes place after the ingredients combine to produce the coloring mixture. The precursors are oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide to form the colorant molecules. These molecules are too large to escape from the hair structure. The hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative hair dye product also serves as bleaching agent for the natural pigment of the hair. The color that is formed depends on the precursors and direct dyes present in the dyeing solution, pH of the dyeing solution and the time of contact of the dyeing solution with the hair.