Disperse Blue 1

What Is It?

Disperse Blue 1 is a blue-black microcrystalline powder. In cosmetics and personal care products, Disperse Blue 1 is used in the formulation of temporary and semi-permanent hair dyes, colors and tints.

Why Is It Used?

Disperse Blue 1 helps to impart a color to hair. The exact color obtained will depend on the other ingredients that are used in the preparation and the starting color of the hair.

Scientific Facts

Disperse Blue 1 is a synthetic pigment sometimes referred to in general terms as an anthraquinone color. Disperse Blue 1 is used in semi-permanent hair coloring systems that are usually applied in a shampoo base and contain thickeners, alkalizers, and foam stabilizers.

Safety Information

The safety of Disperse Blue 1 has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Disperse Blue 1 was safe for use in hair dyes at concentrations up to 1%.

CIR Safety Review:

In vitro dermal penetration studies indicated that Disperse Blue 1 was poorly absorbed through the skin. Reduced body weights and blue tissue samples were observed in short-term, subchronic and chronic studies. No skin irritation was observed with concentrations up to 10%, but Disperse Blue 1 was a moderate sensitizer. Disperse Blue 1 was mutagenic in several test systems. When fed to animals in large doses, there was some evidence that Disperse Blue 1 can increase urinary bladder neoplasms. Further evaluation of the carcinogenesis data suggests that the urinary bladder neoplasms appear to be associated with bladder calculi rather than arising from a genotoxic mechanism. Such bladder calculi do not appear to form in humans. A dermal carcinogenesis study was negative. Based upon these data and the facts that dermal exposure produced no evidence of carcinogenesis, that the ingredient is poorly absorbed, and that exposure to hair dyes is brief, it was concluded that Disperse Blue 1 was safe for use in hair dyes at concentrations up to 1%.

More information about the safety of hair dyes.

Disperse Blue 1 is listed as 1,4,5,8-Tetraaminoanthraquinone in Annex II of the Cosmetics Directive of the European Union and must not form a part of the composition of cosmetics and personal care products.

Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm

More Scientific Information

Hair dyeing formulations belong to three categories – temporary, semi-permanent and permanent coloring of hair. Temporary coloring preparations, often called color rinses, provide color which lasts until the first shampooing. Ingredients which impart temporary color may have a fairly high molecular weight and are unable to penetrate the hair shaft. These materials are simply deposited onto the hair fiber and are removed by subsequent shampooing. Semi-permanent coloring preparations generally provide color through several shampooings. These materials are often low molecular weight pre-formed dyes which can penetrate the hair shaft to some extent. Disperse Blue 1 is 9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,4,5,8-Tetraamino-. In cosmetics and personal care products, Disperse Blue 1 functions as a hair colorant.


The FDA’s factsheet on Hair Dye Products http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductandIngredientSafety/ProductInformati…

Search the FDA Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm

EU Cosmetic Ingredients Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/