Diethylene Glycol Diethylhexanoate/Diisononanoate

What Is It?

Pelargonic Acid, also called nonanoic acid, is a fatty acid with nine carbons. Isononanoic acid also has nine carbons but at least one single carbon branch. Esters of Pelargonic Acid and isononanoic acid including Butylene Glycol Diisononanoatie, Cetearyl Isononanoate, Cetearyl Nonanoate, Cetyl Isononanoate, Diethylene Glycol Diethylhexanoate/Diisononanoate, Dipentaerythrityl Pentaisononanoate, Ethylhexyl Isononanoate, Isodecyl Isononanoate, Isononyl Isononanoate, Isostearyl Isononanoate, Isotridceyl Isononanoate, Neopentyl Glycol Diisononanoate, PEG-2 Diisononanoate, PEG-5 Isononanoate, Pentaerythrityl Tetraisononanoate, Polyglyceryl-20 Octaisononanoate, Propylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Tridecyl Isononanoate, Ethylhexyl Pelagonate, Ethyl Pelargonate, Isobutyl Pelargonate, Methyl Pelargonate and Pentaerythrityl Tetrapelargonate may also be used in cosmetic and personal care products. Among the esters, Isononyl Isononoate, Cetearyl Isononanoate and Ethylhexyl Isononanoate are most likely to be used in cosmetics and personal care products.

Why Is It Used?

The following functions have been reported for Pelargonic Acid and its esters.

  • Binder – Pentaerythrityl Tetrapelargonate
  • Hair conditioning agent – Cetearyl Isononanoate, Diethylene Glycol Diethylhexanoate/Diisononanoate, Ethyl Pelargonate
  • Plasticizer – Diethylene Glycol Diethylhexanoate/Diisononanoate
  • Skin conditioning agent – emollient – Butylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Cetearyl Isononanoate, Cetearyl Nonanoate, Cetyl Isononanoate, Diethylene Glycol Diethylhexanoate/Diisononanoate, Dipentaerythrityl Pentaisononanoate, Ethylhexyl Isononanoate, Isodecyl Isononanoate, Isononyl Isononanoate, Isostearyl Isononanoate, Isotridecyl Isononanoate, Neopentyl Glycol Diisononanoate, Tridecyl Isononanoate, Ethylhexyl Pelargonate, Ethyl Pelargonate, Isobutyl Pelargonate, Methyl Pelargonate,
  • Skin conditioning agent – occlusive – Butylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Pentaerythrityl Tetraisononanoate, Propylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Pentaerythrityl Tetrapelargonate
  • Surfactant – cleansing agent – Pelargonic Acid, Polyglyceryl-20 Octaisononanoate
  • Surfactant – emulsifying agent – Pelargonic Acid, PEG-2 Diisononanoate, PEG-5 Isononanoate, Polyglyceryl-20 Octaisononanoate
  • Surfactant – solubilizing agent – Polyglyceryl-20 Octaisononanoate
  • Viscosity increasing agent – nonaqueous – Butylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Dipentaerythrityl Pentaisononanoate, Pentaerythrityl Tetrisononanoate, Propylene Glycol Diisononanoate, Pentaerythrityl Tetrapelargonate

Scientific Facts

Pelargonic Acid is a fatty acid that is found in almost all species of animals and plants and it is found in low levels in many foods. Because it contains nine carbon atoms, it is also called nonanoic acid. Pelargonic Acid is also used as an herbicide to prevent growth of weeds both indoors and outdoors, and as a blossom thinner for apple and pear trees.

Safety Information

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes Pelargonic Acid on the list of food additives (synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants) permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption. The safety of Pelargonic Acid and its esters has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Pelargonic Acid and its esters were safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products.

CIR Safety Review:

The CIR Expert Panel reviewed data that indicated that Pelargonic Acid is not genotoxic or a reproductive or developmental toxicant. At concentrations of 12% and less, Pelargonic Acid is not a dermal irritant. Pelargonic Acid is not a sensitizer. Studies of the ester compounds indicated that these compounds are not genotoxic, and they are not dermal irritants or sensitizers. The esters of Pelargonic Acid, including Isononyl Isononanoate, Ethylhexyl Isononanoate and Cetearyl Isononanoate are not very soluble in water and do not readily penetrate the skin.

The CIR Expert Panel noted that these compounds may increase the dermal penetration of other compounds. The CIR Expert Panel cautioned that care should be taken in formulating cosmetic products that contain these ingredients in combination with other ingredients for which dermal absorption was a concern. Based on the available data, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Pelargonic Acid and its esters, including Isononyl Isononanoate, Ethylhexyl Isononanoate and Cetearyl Isononanoate are safe for use as cosmetic ingredients.

FDA: Link to Code of Federal Regulations for Pelargonic Acid http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr…

Pelargonic Acid and its esters may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.

Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm

Resources

Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration

Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm

Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm

Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm

Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm

EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/