Glossary Terms – G



A swelling of plant tissue usually due to microorganisms, insects, or injury; sometimes an important source of tannin.


A gall whose appearance resembles a nut

General Provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union

Ingredients other than color additives (Annex IV), preservatives (Annex VI), UV filters (Annex VII), and ingredients not prohibited (Annex II) or restricted (Annex III) may be used in cosmetic products in the European Union. Specifically, ingredients not included in the Annexes of the Cosmetics Regulation may be used without restriction, subject to the general principles of protection of human health and good manufacturing practice.


The embryonic form of a grain from which a new organism is developed.


A glucose-containing sugar derivative found widely in plants.


A mixture of proteins obtained from wheat and other cereal grains; usually adhesive.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain (and take the color of the red counterstain) in Gram’s method of staining. This is characteristic of bacteria that have a cell wall composed of a thin layer of a particular substance (called peptidoglycan).


GRAS” is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe. Under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive.


Sticky, polysaccharide substances exuded by plants that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying.